There are many different studies that have suggestions for how much and what to take after a grueling workout but here are the basics:
1.) .23g of protein per kg of body weight.
Ex.) 1Lb =2.2kg so a 200lbs athlete needs 20g of protein post workout (200lbs./2.2 = 90.9 x .23 = 20g)
Note: Choose whey protein, it digests faster than soy or casein.
2.) 1g of simple carbohydrate per kg of body weight. Ex.) 200lb athlete needs 90g of simple carbs post workout (200lbs./2.2 = 90 x 1 = 90g)
Note: Dextrose is a clean, cheap source
When ingested together at these levels, there is a positive net protein balance in skeletal muscles, leading to quicker recovery and stronger muscles.
“Specifically, timed ingestion of protein/essential amino acids and carbohydrate will replenish skeletal muscle glycogen, reduce muscle soreness and rates of protein degradation, induce a positive net protein balance, and amplify strength and lean muscle mass gains beyond what would be realized from a resistance training program alone.”
SIDE NOTE: When lifting for max strength/power (think 3-5 reps) carbohydrate supplementation should be adjusted since you are not using as much glycogen as in higher rep ranges. Lower your carb intake by ½ to ensure you don’t store as excess carbs as fat.
Campbell B, Wilborn CD, La Bounty PM, Wilson J. Nutrient Timing for Resistance Exercise. Strength and Conditioning Journal 34/4: 2-10, 2012
Haff GG, StoneMH, WarrenBJ, Keith R, Johnson RL, Nieman DC, Williams F Jr, and Kirksey KB. The effect on carbohydrate supplementation on multiple sessions and bouts of resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 13: 111-117, 1999